Posts Tagged ‘gnu’

Linux file system

filesystem: the files and directories (or folders), the method used to store data on the hard drive (such as the ext3 filesystem.

– Windows keeps all the important system files in a single directory C:\
– Linux follows the lead of its UNIX
– Windows and Linux setups are both logical

✓ Linux uses a forward slash (/) between directories, not the backslash (\) that Windows uses. So, the file yum.conf in the directory etc is

✓ Files and directories can have names up to 256 characters long, and these names can contain underscores (_), dashes (-), and dots (.) any-
where within. So my.big.file or my.big_file or my-big-file are all valid filenames.

✓ Upper- and lowercase matter. They have to match exactly. The files yum.conf and Yum.conf are not the same as far as Linux is concerned.
Linux is case-sensitive — it pays attention to the case of each character. Windows, on the other hand, is case-insensitive.

✓ The same filesystem can span multiple partitions, hard drives, and media (such as CD-ROM drives). You just keep going down through
subdirectories, not having to care whether something is on disk A, B, or whatever.

Everything in the Linux filesystem is relative to the root directory — not to be confused with the system Administrator, who is the root user. The root directory is referred to as /, and it is the filesystem’s home base — a doorway into all your files. As such, it contains a relatively predictable set of subdirectories. Each distribution varies slightly in terms of what it puts in the root directory. More or less you can find the following directories.

/bin   : Essential commands that everyone needs to use at any time.*
/boot  : The information that boots the machine, including your kernel.*
/dev :  The device drivers for all the hardware that your system needs to  interface with.*
/etc  : The configuration files for your system.*
/home  : The home directories for each of your users.
/lib  : The libraries, or the code that many programs (and the kernel) use.*
/media  : A spot where you add temporary media, such as floppy disks and  CD-ROMs; not all distributions have this directory.
/mnt  :  A spot where you add extra filesystem components such as networked drives and items you aren’t permanently adding to your filesystem but that aren’t as temporary as CD-ROMs and floppies.
/opt   : The location that some people decide to use (and some programs want to use) for installing new software packages, such as word
processors and office suites.
/proc   : Current settings for your kernel (operating system).*
/root   : The superuser’s (root user’s) home directory.
/sbin   : The commands the system Administrator needs access to.*
/srv   : Data for your system’s services (the programs that run in thebackground).*
/sys   : Kernel information about your hardware.*
/tmp   : The place where everyone and everything stores temporary files.
/usr   : A complex hierarchy of additional programs and files.
/var   : The data that changes frequently, such as log files and your mail.

Linux for newbies, free pdf download

Check my slides about the introduction to gnu/linux OS in pdf file!